Wilt u een bijdrage leveren aan de Maelwael Van Lymborch Studies? Dat kan in de vorm van:
1- Een wetenschappelijk en vernieuwend artikel, dat na goedkeuring wordt geplaatst op de website onder 'artikelen'.
2- Een wetenschappelijk en vernieuwend artikel, dat na goedkeuring wordt afgedrukt in een volgende Maelwael Van Lymborch Studies.
Een voorstel voor een tekst kan worden verstuurd naar de redactie: firstname.lastname@example.org
De tekst moet voldoen aan de volgende voorwaarden:
1- In het Engels voor de boekuitgave, in het Nederlands en/of Engels voor de artikelen op de website.
2- Inclusief notenapparaat (eindnoten) en bibliografie.
3- Conform de richtlijnen van de MHRA-Style Guide en Brepols Publishers Style Guide (zie hieronder).
4- Indien afbeeldingen zijn gewenst bij de tekst deze graag rechtenvrij aanleveren in minimaal 300 dpi. met de correcte bijschriften (zie Style Guide Captions).
Auteurs en redacteuren bijeen in het Gebroeders van Lymborch Huis, 2 november 2019. V.l.n.r. Jacobus Trijsburg, Rob Dückers, Jochem van Eijsden, Lieke Kamphuis, Jos Koldeweij, André Stufkens en Peter van der Heijden. Foto: Annemie Mees.
STYLE GUIDE MAELWAEL VAN LYMBORCH STUDIES
Editorial Style Guide Summary and Supplement
 PRELIMINARY NOTE
[1.1] The Style Guide should be followed for the majority of series in which English is the sole or primary language of publication is:
MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses, 2nd edn (London: Modern
Humanities Research Association, 2008). ISBN 978-0-947623-76-0. viii + 95 pp. You can access or
download an up-to-date, searchable version at:
Copies can also be obtained inexpensively direct from the printers, W. S. Maney & Son Ltd., Hudson
Road, LEEDS LS9 7DL, UK; tel: +44 (113) 249-7481; fax: +44 (113) 248-6983 [email:
[1.2] The following information is a summary of the MHRA guide. It also includes supplementary information on place-names, quotations, abbreviations, use of non-roman characters and the delivery of the definitive text applicable to Brepols publications.
The sections below relate to:
 Spelling & Proper Names
 Italics, Roman & Boldface
 References (examples)
 Supplying texts with non-Roman fonts and other characters
 Submission of final text
[2.1] A single space (not two) should follow full-stops at the end of sentences; a single space should follow
commas, colons, and other punctuation marks.
[2.2] A space should separate each initial of an author or editor’s surname (e.g. B. C. Cummings, not B.C.
[2.3] Use the tab bar not the space bar for indentations, especially at the opening of paragraphs.
 SPELLING & PROPER NAMES
[3.1] Commonwealth spelling (as given in the Oxford English Dictionary and its derivatives) is preferred
(e.g. honour, defence, centre, travelling etc.).
[3.2] For words ending in –ize or –ise, the –ize form is preferred; but note where other words demand –ise
(e.g. advertise, exercise) and the case of ‘analyse’.
[3.3] Use the native form of the place-name, except in some cases where the English form can be retained (see list below for some examples):
Germany, Switzerland and Austria
Cologne, Munich, Vienna
Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome, Venice
Antwerp, Brussels, The Hague
[3.4] For countries using Greek and Cyrillic scripts (which should always be Romanized), use Belgrade, Moscow; likewise Bucharest can be Anglicized.
[3.5] Regions should remain in their English forms (e.g. Flanders) where these forms are very well known.
However, do not over-Anglicize (Sj.lland, not Sealand).
[4.1] Punctuation generally goes outside quotation marks.
[4.2] Commas should appear before the final ‘and’ / ‘or’ in a list of three or more items (e.g. truth, grace, and
[4.3] No punctuation, other than question marks, should occur at the end of headings or subheadings.
[4.4] Use single quotation marks; double quotation marks only within single quotation marks; translate
quotation marks from different systems or languages (e.g. . … . or „…“) into the forms here.
[4.5] Place ellipses within square brackets when they indicate omitted text from a quotation (e.g. […]); if the
beginning of the sentence is omitted following the ellipses, begin with a capital letter; do not use ellipses at
the beginning of a quotation or at the end, unless there is a specific reason.
[4.6] Names ending in –s or other sybillant take the ’s (e.g. Jesus’s, Berlioz’s); names with –es endings have no s (e.g. Moses’ leadership, Sophocles’ plays).
[4.7] The plural of 860 is 860s, not 860’s.
[4.8] Hyphenation is used where the first of two or more words is used adjectively (e.g. ‘a tenth-century
manuscript’ versus ‘in the tenth century’). You may find these referred to as compound adjectives or compound modifiers. Where one of the words is an adverb ending in –ly, do not hyphenate (e.g. ‘a handsomely bound codex’).
[4.9] Brepols copyeditors normally use the Merriam-Webster dictionary (available free online) as guidance for hyphenation, particularly at ends of lines.
[5.1] Places, persons, days, and months take capitals; nationalities and nouns deriving from people or languages are capitalized (e.g. Latinate, the Lombards).
[5.2] Historical periods are capitalized (e.g. Middle Ages, the Reformation).
[5.3] Nouns and adjectives of movements derived from personal nouns are capitalized (e.g. Christian, Platonism); but note biblical, not Biblical; satanic, not Satanic.
[5.4] Unique events and periods take capitals (e.g. the Last Judgement, the Peasants’ Revolt).
[5.5] Capitalize references to particular parts of a book (e.g. Chapter 1; Appendix 2; Part ii, Figure 8).
[5.6] Official titles should be capitalized where the reference is to a specific person (e.g. The Archbishop of
Canterbury, Bishop Wilberforce; and subsequently the Archbishop, the Bishop).
Titles should not be capitalised where the reference is general (e.g. The King was having trouble with the
[5.7] In most European languages (except English, French and Romance languages, Latin, and certain Slavonic languages), titles of books and other publications are set as in regular prose, with an initial capital or with a capitalized second word if the first is an article.
[5.8] For journals, follow the preferred capitals style of the journal.
[5.9] In ancient and medieval Latin works, as well as most Romance languages, only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized (e.g. De civitate Dei).
[5.10] Seasons of the year are not capitalized (e.g. in spring 1349); nor are points of the compass (north of
England, northern England), except when they indicate an official name or specific concept (South
America, the Western world).
[5.11] In titles of works in English the following are capitalized:
‐ the initial letters of the first word,
‐ all nouns, pronouns (except the relative ‘that’), adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinating
and the following are not capitalized:
‐ articles, possessive determiners (‘my’, etc.), prepositions, and the co-ordinating conjunctions ‘and’,
‘but’, ‘or’, and ‘nor’.
[6.1] Quotations from a primary source in the main body of the text should be presented initially in the original language. A translation should also be provided in modern English. This can be done either directly
following the quotation (within parentheses), or in a footnote — as long as this is followed consistently
throughout the volume.
[6.2] For verse citations, line breaks should be separated in consecutive text with a |
[6.3] Set long quotations as block quotations (‘long’ meaning more than forty words of prose, or more than two lines of verse); do not enclose within quotation marks.
[7.1] Spell out numbers one up to one hundred; use Arabic for 101+ except when beginning a sentence; spell out approximate numbers over one hundred (i.e., two thousand).
[7.2] Use Arabic for percentages and spell out percent (i.e., 50 per cent).
[7.3] Use Arabic numerals for chapter numbers, journal numbers, series numbers, figure and plate numbers.
[7.4] Use Roman numerals, small capitals, for volume numbers, book numbers, and other major subdivisions of books or long poems, and for acts in plays; small capitals for XVIe si.cle; use large capitals for monarch titles (Edward IV).
[7.5] Inclusive numbers falling within the same hundred should include the last two figures: 13–15, 44–48, 104–08, 100–22, 1933–39.
[7.6] No comma in numbers up to 9999; 10,000 and higher include comma for every three digits
[7.7] Set dates as 23 April 1999 with no internal punctuation unless the day of the week is used: Friday, 8 February 1890.
[7.8] In date ranges, the first two digits of the second year should be elided when the range falls within the same hundred, including lifespans (note that we differ from the MHRA in this): 1244–89 and not 1244–1289.
[7.9] Money expressed in pounds, shilling and/or pence should appear as Åí197 12s. 6d.; the symbols for
pound/lira, euro, dollar, yen, deutschmark and florin/guilder are Åí, €, $, \, DM and fl; for other currencies the symbol or abbreviation follows the number, e.g. 15 DKr.
[7.10] In non-statistical contexts, express weights and measures in words (e.g. ‘He carried an ounce of sugar’); in statistical contexts express as figures with the appropriate abbreviations (e.g. 1 kg, 3. in., 45 mm, 100 lb).
 ITALICS, ROMAN & BOLDFACE
[8.1] Single words or short phrases in a foreign language in italics; direct quotations or more substantial quotations in Roman.
[8.2] Words, letters or characters that are individually discussed as a point of analysis should be italicized (e.g. ‘In Icelandic, › represents a voiced dental fricative like th in English "them", but it never appears as the first letter of a word’).
In the case of foreign words, an English translation may immediately follow in normal type, surrounded by single quotation marks and in parentheses (e.g. ‘the distinction between exhortatio (‘exhortation’) and praedicatio (‘preaching’) became very important in thirteenth-century discussions about lay preaching’).
[8.3] Use italics for titles of books, journals; but do not use for dissertations or journal / book series.
[8.4] Italics for: sic, c.
[8.5] Do not use italics for cf., e.g., et al., etc., passim, viz. [but note that ‘ibid’ and ‘idem’ are not allowed].
[8.6] Use Roman for punctuation following italicized text if the main sentence is in Roman.
[8.7] Do not set titles in Roman when they are part of a title; instead, use single quotation marks (A Study of ‘Romeo and Juliet’ in American Theatre).
[8.8] Use Roman for religious works such as ‘the Bible’, ‘the Koran’, and ‘the Talmud’, and do not place individual books of the Bible in italics or within quotation marks (e.g. II Corinthians 5. 13−15).
[9.1] Follow two-letter postal abbreviations for US states; for other countries follow the norms of that country in abbreviating names of political divisions within a country (e.g. NSW or SA for those Australian states; Ont. for the Canadian province of Ontario; Notts. for Nottinghamshire in the UK)
[9.2] Do not use loc. cit., op. cit., ibid. or other abbreviations in referencing. For the first citation include the full reference, with a short form for subsequent references (see section 11 for details).
[9.3] c. [not ca.].
[9.4] b. (birth / born) d. (died).
[9.5] Do not use full-stops / periods after Mr, St, Dr, USA, UK, ad, vols, fols, nos, eds, edn, pls.
Do not use full-stops / periods in abbreviated standard reference works, journals, or series: OED, MLR, EETS.
[9.6] Do use full-stops / periods with e.g., i.e., vol., fol., no., ed., pl., p., repr., ps., vol., pp., trans., viz. and so on.
[9.7] Avoid starting sentences and footnotes with abbreviations: For example, not e.g.
[9.8] MS and MSS for manuscript shelf-mark citations and references; but otherwise the word ‘manuscript’ in
[10.1] Publisher, as well as place of publication required.
[10.2] Footnote reference numbers should be located in the main text at the end of a sentence; they should be
marked with a superscript number.
[10.3] Do not use a footnote number in a title or heading; if a note is required use an asterisk.
[10.4] The first citation of a particular author or work in each chapter should be a full reference, including author or editor name, title, publication details, and page numbers (if applicable).
[10.5] Subsequent citations of this work can be abbreviated, but make sure this is standardized throughout (e.g. if more than one work by the author is cited, then: Chitty, The Desert a City, p. 1; if only one work by the author is cited, then: Chitty, p. 1).
[10.6] Supply forenames for names of people cited.
[10.7] Provide full references to series, and series numbers.
[11.1] Be consistent in the citation of a particular work.
[11.2] For a monograph, follow example:
H. Munro Chadwick and N. Kershaw Chadwick, The Growth of Literature, 3 vols (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1932−40; repr. 1986), I, p. xiii. [subsequent reference: Chadwick and Chadwick, III, 72, or Chadwick and Chadwick, The Growth of Literature, III, 72].
[11.3] For a multi-authored, multi-volume work, follow example:
Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. by Joseph R. Strayer and others, 13 vols (New York: Scribner, 1982−89), VI (1985), p. 26. [subsequent reference: Dictionary of the Middle Ages, VI, p. 26.]
[11.4] For an edited or translated work, follow example:
Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Sämtliche Werke, ed. by Rudolf Hirsch and others (Frankfurt a. M.:
Fischer, 1975− ), XIII: Dramen, ed. by Roland Haltmeier (1986), pp. 12−22. [replace ‘ed. by’ with ‘trans. by’ or ‘rev. by’ where necessary]
[11.5] For a chapter or an article in a book, follow example:
Fanni Bogdanow, ‘The Suite du Merlin and the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal’, in Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages: A Collaborative History, ed. by Roger Sherman Loomis (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959), pp. 325−35. [subsequent reference: Bogdanow, ‘The Suite du Merlin’, p. 329.]
[11.6] For a journal article, follow example:
Robert F. Cook, ‘Baudouin de Sebourc: un po.me .difiant?’, Olifant, 14 (1989), 115−35 (pp.
[subsequent reference: Cook, ‘Baudouin de Sebourc’, p. 129.]
[11.7] For an article in a newspaper or magazine, follow example:
Jacques-Pierre Amette, ‘Th. et d.sespoir’, Le Point, 8 October 1989, p. 18. [subsequent reference: Amette, ‘Th. et d.sespoir’, p. 18.]
[11.8] For a thesis or dissertation, follow examples:
European example: Robert Ingram, ‘Historical Drama in Great Britain from 1935 to the Present’
(unpublished doctoral thesis, University of London, 1988), p. 17.
North American example: James Franklin Burke, ‘A Critical and Artistic Study of the Libro del
Cavallero Cifar’ (unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1966; abstract
in Dissertation Abstracts, 27 (1966−67), 2525−A).
[11.9] For Bible references, follow example:
II Corinthians 5.
13−15; Isaiah 22. 17
[11.10] For abbreviated references to books / chapters / sections of classical or medieval texts, include spacing
between each part of the reference and follow example:
Defensor Pacis, II. 6. 12 (not II.6.12).
Use a non-breaking space to avoid the citation getting divided over different lines (Control + Alt +
spacebar in Word).
[11.11] For manuscript references, follow example:
British Library, Cotton MSS, Caligula D III, fol. 15.
[subsequent reference: Cotton MSS, Caligula D III, fols 17v−19r.]
[11.12] For an edition of a primary source within a series, follow example:
Carlos Fuentes, Aura, ed. by Peter Standish, Durham Modern Language Series: Hispanic Texts, 1
(Durham: University of Durham, 1986), pp. 12−16 (p. 14).
[subsequent reference: Aura, p. 93.]
 SUPPLYING MANUSCRIPTS THAT INCLUDE NON-ROMAN CHARACTERS AND OTHER
[12.1] Brepols’ copyeditors will transpose any text they work on into a special font. In doing so, they will embed all text, special characters, and so forth, to make the whole document ready for digital printing.
It is important that any special characters and symbols are supplied in a format that makes it clear to the copyeditors what they will need to do present your text clearly and correctly.
[12.2] As a general rule of thumb, non-Roman alphabets and other characters should be written using the same font used in writing the rest of your book/chapter/article. This means that if you are using Times New Roman, you should use the same TNR font for writing passages in Greek, Arabic, Middle English, and so on. This can be achieved using the ‘Insert-Symbol’ option.
[12.3] Some alphabets or characters will not be available in the font-set you are using. In this circumstance, a place-holder and key system is the best way to supply text. Place-holders should be characters that aren’t used in regular prose. For example, dollar signs ($$) and the ‘at’ (@) symbol are preferred.
In the following passage, you can see how place-holders are used to represent the characters that cannot be inserted using a normal font.
And also ri$$t bileeue
þat I mai remoue hillis,
Key $$ - represents the yogh
[12.4] If there are a significant number of special characters in your text, let us know as early as possible. We will then consult with the copyeditor assigned to your project to determine the best font for you to use — this way, you will be working in a compatible font before you submit the final files, and this will ensure that we avoid having to amend fonts and files at a later stage.
[12.5] If your book contains a large amount of such non-Roman characters, please supply a pdf along with the Word document when submitting the text, so that the copyeditor may check the font reflects what is intended.
 SUBMISSION OF DEFINITIVE TEXT
[13.1] You will be required to submit your definitive text (i.e. what you consider to be publishable, as it stands) first for signing-off by the Editorial Board and then by a pre-editor appointed by Brepols. The Board checks that you have incorporated suggestions made by the peer-reviewer and the Board. The pre-editor checks that your material conforms sufficiently to the above Style Guide. So that the copyeditor can start work in an efficient way you will probably be asked to complete a checklist at the point of submission. Your Publishing Manager will co-ordinate this.